A review of Camel Dermatophilosis

Author

By H. Agab, Amel O. Bakhiet.

Abstracts

Dermatophilosis is a skin disease caused by a bacterium called Dermatophilus congolensis. The disease affects many species of domestic and wild animals and occasionally, humans. It is most prevalent in the tropics. The lesions are characterized by an exudative dermatitis with scab formation. The disease causes severe skin matting resulting in hide depreciation overall decrease in animal productivity and in severe cases mortality in susceptible weak animals may be as high as 50% in the absence of treatment. Although only recently described (Gitao et al 1990) camel dermatophilosis is recognised as widespread in several camel rearing countries in the tropics. Natural D. congolensis infection of camels was first reported in Kenya in semi-arid conditions. Camel dermatophilosis was found to be one of the most serious skin problems faced by camel herders in Butana area of Sudan and in several camel rearing areas in Saudi Arabia where D. congolensis and Microsporum gypseum infections have both been recorded as mixed infections in a camel dairy farm. Camel calves were more likely to be infected than adults. Lesions began as hair matting and later developed into hard crusts. Fatality ranged from 10 to 30%. The most effective control measure of this disease was thought to be through control of tick infestations. Several treatment regimes were tried in other animal species but with varying degrees of success. The only control method of this disease practiced in dromedary camels was the regular washing with 1% potassium aluminium sulphate solution. The review details some aspects of the clinical picture, epidemiology chemotherapy and control measures of the disease in camels.

References

  • Agab, H. (1993). Epidemiology of Camel Diseases in Eastern Sudan with Emphasis on Brucellosis. M.V.Sc. Thesis. University of Khartoum. PP. 172.
  • Ali-Emmanuel, N.; Moudachirou, M.; Akakpo, J. A. and Quetin- Leclereq, J. (2003). Treatment of bovine dermatophilosis with Senna alata, Lantana, camara and Mitracarpus scaber leaf extracts. L. Ethnopharmacol. 86(2 3): 167 171.
  • Aning, K. G. and Koney, E. B. (1996). Chemotherapy of dermatophilosis - a preliminary study. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 28 (2 Suppl.): 38S - 43S; discussion 74S 86S.
  • Awad, W.S.; Nadra-Elwgoud, M.I.Abdou and El-Sayed, A.A. (2008). Diagnosis and treatment of bovine, ovine and equine dermatophilosis. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 4 (4): 367 374.
  • Barre, N.; Matheron, G.; Rogez, B.; Roger, F.; Martinez, D. and Sheikboudou (1988). La dermatophilose des bovines a Dermatophilus congolensis dans les Antilles francaises. II. Facteurs de receptivite lies aux animaux. Rev. Elev. Vet. Med. Pays Trop. 41: 339 345.
  • Brack, M.; Hochleithner, C.; Hochleithner, M. and Zenker, W. (1997). Suspected dermatophilosis in an adult orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 28(3): 336 341.
  • Burridge, M. J.; Barre, N.; Birnie, E.; Camus, E. and Uilenberg, G. (1984). Epidemiological studies on heartwater in the Caribbean with observations on tick-associated bovine dermatophilosis. In: Proc. XIIIth World Congress on Diseases of Cattle. Durban, 1984. 1 : 542 546.
  • Chatikobo, P.; Kusina, N. T.; Hamudikuwanda, H. and Nyoni, O. (2004). A monitoring study on the prevalence of dermatophilosis and parafilariosis in cattle in a smallholder semi-arid farming area in Zimbabwe. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 36(3): 207 215.
  • Gbaguidi, F.; Accrombessi, G.; Moudachirou, M. and Ouetin- Leelereq, I. (2005). HPLC quantification of two isomeric triterpenic acids isolated from Mitracarpus scaber and antimicrobial activity on Dermatophilus congolensis. J. Pharm. Biomed Anal. 39(5) : 990 995.
  • Gitao, C. G.; Evans, J. O. and Atkins, D. J. (1990). Natural Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kenya. J. Comp. Path. 103: 307 313.
  • Gitao, C. G. (1992). Dermatophilosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758) in Kenya. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 11 (4) :1079 1086.
  • Gitao, C. G. (1993). The epidemiology and control of camel dermatophilosis. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. No. 1 2 (1993). Actes de la 2e reunion biennale de la Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Saint-Francois, La Guadeloupe, 2 6 fevrier, 1993. pp. 309 311.
  • Gitao, C. G.; Agab, H. and Khalafalla, A. I. (1998a). Outbreaks of Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Butana region in Eastern Sudan. Rev. Sci. Tech. 17 (3): 743 748.
  • Gitao, C. G.; Agab. H. and Khalafalla, A. I. (1998b). An outbreak of a mixed infection of Dermatophilus congolensis and Microsporum gypseum in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 17 93): 749 755.
  • Isitor, G. N.; Njoku, C. O.; Adogwa, A. O. and Oyekan, A. O. (1993). Study of efficacy of Lamstreptocide A and B on cases of dermatophilosis within the Caribbean. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. No. 1 2 (1993). Actes de la 2e reunion biennale de la Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Saint-Francois, La Guadeloupe, 2 6 fevrier, 1993. pp. 263 269.
  • Maillard, J. C.; Kemp, S. J.; Naves, M.; Palin, C.; Demangel, C.; Accipe, A.; Maillard, N. and Bensaid, A. (1993). An attempt to correlate cattle breed origins and diseases associated with or transmitted by the tick Amblyomma variegatum in the French West Indies. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. No. 1 2 (1993). Actes de la 2e reunion biennale de la Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Saint-Francois, La Guadeloupe, 2 6 fevrier, 1993. pp. 283 289.
  • Maillard, J. C.; Chantal, I.; Berthier, D.; Thevenon, S.; Sidibe, I. and Razafindraibe, H. (2002). Molecular immunogenetics in susceptibility to bovine dermatophilosis: a candidate gene approach and a concrete field application. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 969: 92 96.
  • Maillard, J. C.; Berthier, D; Chantal, I.; Thevenon, S.; Sidibe, I.; Stachurski, F.; Belemsaga, D.; Razafindraibe, H. and Elsen J. M. (2003). Selection assisted by a BoLA-DR/DQ haplotype against susceptibility to bovine dermatophilosis. Genet. Sel. Evol. 35 Suppl. 1:S193 2000.
  • Martinez, D.; Aumont, G.; Moutoussamy, M.; Gabriel, D.; Tatareau, A. H.; Barre, N.; Vallee, F. and Mari, B. (1993). Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. No. 1 2 (1993). Actes de la 2e reunion biennale de la Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Saint-Francois, La Guadeloupe, 2 6 fevrier, 1993. pp. 263 269.
  • Matheron, G.; Barre, N.; Rogez, B.; Roger, F.; Martinez, D. and Sheikboudou, C. (1989). La dermatophilose des bovines a Dermatophilus congolensis dans les Antilles francaises. III. Comparaison entre elevages infectes et indemnes. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. 42 (3): 331 347.
  • Morrow, A. N.; Arnott, J. L.; Heron, I. D.; Koney, E. B. M. and Walker, A. R. (1993). Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. No. 1 2 (1993). Actes de la 2e reunion biennale de la Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Saint-Francois, La Guadeloupe, 2 6 fevrier, 1993. pp. 263 269.
  • Naves, M.; Vallee, F. and Barre, N. (1993). Observations on a dermatophilosis outbreak in Brahman cattle in Guadeloupe. Description, epidemiological and economical aspects. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. No. 1 2 (1993). Actes de la 2e reunion biennale de la Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Saint- Francois, La Guadeloupe, 2 6 fevrier, 1993. pp. 297 302.
  • Patten, K. M.; Kurtboke, D. I. and Lindsay, D. R. (1995). Isolation of Deramtophilus congolensis phage from the "lumpy wool" of sheep in Western Australia. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 20 (4): 199 203.
  • Rosyehuk, R. A. (1989). Llama dermatology. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Food Anim. Pract. Mar; 5(1): 203 215.
  • Soltys, M. A. (1964). Cutaneous streptothricosis in cattle in Sudan. Sud. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb., 5: 20 23.
  • Thoen, C. O.; Jarnajin, J. L.; Saari, D. A.; Ortiz, B. and Harrington, R. (1980). Pathogenecity and transmission of Dermatophilus congolensis isolated from cattle in Puerto Rico. In: Proceedings of the 84th Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association. Louisville, 1980. Pp. 232 237.
  • Towersey, L.; Martins, Ede C.; Londero, A. T.; Hay, R. J.; Soares Filho, P. J.; Takiva, C. M.; Matrins, C. C. and Gompertz, O. F. (1993). Dermatophilus congolensis human infection. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. Aug. 29 (2 Pt 2): 351 354.
  • Uilenberg, G. (1991). Global importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases: Historical review of the problem in the Caribbean. In: Proceedings "Cowdriosis and dermatophilosis of livestock in the Caribbean region". St. John, Antigua, 12 13 Nov. 1990. St. Augustine. CARDI, Ede-Wageningen, CTA, 1991. Pp. 19 29.
  • Uilenberg, G.; Barre, N.; Camus, E.; Burridge, M. J. and Garris, G. (1984). Heartwater in the Caribbean. Prev. Vet. Med., 1984. 2: 255 267.
  • Woldemeskel, M. (2000). Deramtophilosis: a threat to livestock production in Ethiopia. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 107 (4):144 146.
  • Woldemeskel, M. and Taye, G. (2002). Prevalence of bovine dermatophilosis in a tropical highland region of Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 34(3): 189 194.
  • Yeruham, I.; Elad, D. and Perl, S. (2000). Economic aspects of outbreaks of dermatophilosis in first-calving cows in nine herds of dairy cattle in Israel. Vet. Rec. 146 (24): 695 698.

FULL Text